After RNA has been transported to the cytoplasm, it is translated into protein. Control of this process is largely dependent on the RNA molecule.
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Eukaryotic gene expression is more complex than prokaryotic gene expression because the processes of transcription and translation are physically separated.
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RNA is transcribed, but must be processed into a mature form before translation can begin.
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The DNA of prokaryotes is organized into a circular chromosome, supercoiled within the nucleoid region of the cell cytoplasm.
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Like prokaryotic cells, the transcription of genes in eukaryotes requires the action of an RNA polymerase to bind to a DNA sequence upstream of a gene in order to initiate transcription.
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For a cell to function properly, necessary proteins must be synthesized at the proper time and place.
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