The large intestine is an approximately cylindrical tube from 120 to 150 cm. in length and of variable width. It is composed of two main portions: the ccecum, with the vermiform appendix, and the colon. These two portions, exactly alike and not sharply demarcated, are arranged in a large horseshoe loop about the small intestine, the large intestine becoming continuous with the rectum on the left.

The urinary bladder is a sack-like dilatation of the urinary passages which serves as a collecting reservoir, the size and shape of which is dependent upon the degree of distention. Three chief portions may be recognized in it: the middle and larger portion of the bladder is the body; the upper portion, which is distinctly pointed, especially in the newborn, is the vertex; and the lowermost portion, directed toward the perineum, is called the fundus.

The esophagus is a muscular tube about 25 centimeters in length which is immediately continuous with the lower portion of the pharynx above and with the cardiac portion of the stomach below. It consists of three portions of the cervical, the thoracic, and the abdominal. The thoracic portion is by far the longest, while the abdominal is very short.

The urine is secreted by the kidney, whence it passes successively through the renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, and urethra into the outer world.


It is the initial portion of the small intestine and it is different by its major position, its fixity, its connections with the pancreas.
It is located in its greater part in the stage known méso colic.
There is a small segment in the stage under méso colic

The pituitary or Schneiderian membrane, which lines the cavities of the nose, is a highly vascular mucous membrane, inseparably united, like that investing the cavity of the tympanum, with the periosteum and perichondrium, over which it lies. It is continuous with the skin through the nostrils; with the mucous membrane of the pharynx through the posterior apertures of the nasal fossae; with the conjunctiva through the nasal duct and lachrymal canaliculi; and with the lining membrane of the several sinuses which communicate with the nasal fossae.

The stomach is a sac-like dilatation of the digestive tube intervening between the oesophagus and the intestine.




These are the chief support of the outer part of the organ. They occupy the triangular opening seen in front of the nasal cavity in the dried skull, and assist in forming the septum between the nasal fossae. There are usually reckoned two large and three small cartilages on each side, and one central piece or cartilage of the septum.

The ovary is the female genital gland. Like the testis, it is a paired organ, but it is much smaller; its shape is that of a markedly fattened, irregular ellipsoid.




The nasal fossae, and the various openings into them, with the posterior nares, have been previously described as they exist in the skeleton, and the greater part of that description is also applicable generally to the nose in a recent state; but it is proper to mention certain differences in the form and dimension of parts, which depend on the arrangement of the lining membrane, viz.

The uterus is a hollow, muscular, pear-shaped body, situated in the true pelvis. Its larger upper portion is termed the body or corpus uteri, and the smaller lower one the neck or cervix uteri, these two portions being separated by a constriction which is the narrowest part of the organ. The portion of the body which projects markedly above the entrances of the tubes is known as the fundus, and as the uterus is markedly flattened from before backward, an anterior and a posterior surface and two lateral margins may be recognized in it. The anterior surface is known as the vesical surface, the posterior more convex one as the intestinal surface, and the lateral margins as the right and the left. That portion of the cervix which projects into the vagina is termed the vaginal portion, while that situated above the vagina is called the supravaginal portion.


Vision is the special sense of sight that is based on the transduction of light stimuli received through the eyes. The eyes are located within either orbit in the skull. The bony orbits surround the eyeballs, protecting them and anchoring the soft tissues of the eye.

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