The excretory duct of the kidney is a musculo-mucous canal, expanded and irregularly branched above, narrow and of fairly uniform dimensions in the rest of its course.

The pharynx is a vertical, tubular passage, flattened anteroposteriorly, and extending from the base of the cranium above to the beginning of the esophagus below. Posteriorly, it is in contact with the bodies of the upper six cervical vertebrae.

These structures do not form any part of the genito-urinary apparatus, but it is convenient to describe them in association with the glands by which they are supported.

Numerous glands - labial, buccal, palatine and lingual - have already been mentioned, which pour their secretions into the mouth cavity. In addition to these, there are three larger pairs, the salivary glands proper. They include the parotid, the submaxillary, and the sublingual (the latter really a group of glands).

The stomach is a sac-like dilatation of the digestive tube intervening between the oesophagus and the intestine.

The tongue [latin: lingua; French: La langue] is a muscular organ covered with mucous membrane and located in the floor of the mouth. It is an important organ of mastication, deglutition, taste and speech. Upon its upper surface is a V-shaped groove (sulcus terminalis) indicating the division of the tongue into two parts. The larger anterior part, or body [corpus linguae] belongs to the floor of the mouth, while the smaller posterior part, or root [radix linguae], forms the anterior wall of the oral pharynx. The inferior surface (facies inferior) of the tongue is chiefly attached to the muscles of the floor of the mouth, from the hyoid bone to the mandible. Anteriorly and laterally, however, the inferior surface of the body is free and covered with mucosa. The superior surface of the body is called the dorsum. It is separated from the inferior surface by the lateral margins, which meet anteriorly at the tip [apex linguae].

The palate (French: Le palais) forms the roof of the mouth cavity proper, and consists of two portions, the anterior or hard palate and the posterior or soft palate.

The peritoneum, as has been shown, is a serous membrane which lines the cavity of the abdomen from the diaphragm to the pelvic floor, and invests or covers to a varying extent the viscera which that cavity contains. Viewed in its very simplest condition, it may be regarded as a closed sac, the inner surface of which is smooth, while the outer surface is rough and is attached to the tissues which surround it.

The oral cavity is the first portion of the entire digestive tract. It is an irregularly shaped, elongated cavity, situated in the lower portion of the face, and its boundaries are partly bony and partly musculocutaneous. It is divided by the two rows of teeth into two incompletely separated spaces, the vestibulum oris and the oral cavity proper.

The lips [labia oris] form the anterior wall of the mouth cavity. The lower lip [labium inferius] is marked off from the chin by the sulcus mentolabialis. The upper lip [labium superius] extends upward to the nose medially and the sulcus nasolabialis laterally. The philtrum is a median groove on the upper lip extending from the septum of the nose above to the labial tubercle [tuberculum labii superioris] below, at the middle of the rima oris. On each side of the rima oris the upper and the lower lips are continuous at the angle of the mouth [angulus oris], which is usually opposite the first premolar teeth. Laterally, the lips are continuous with the cheeks [buccse], which form the lateral walls of the mouth cavity.

The stomach [Latin: ventriculus ; gaster; French: estomac] is a dilation of the alimentary canal succeeding the esophagus. In the stomach the food is mixed with the gastric juice and reduced to a viscid, pulpy liquid, the chyme [chymus], which undergoes a certain amount of digestion and absorption before passing into the duodenum.

The oral cavity [cavum oris] represents the first segment of the alimentary canal. Its walls are exceedingly specialized in structure, corresponding to its manifold functions (mastication, insalivation, taste, speech, etc.).

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