Temperature and Heat
Heat and temperature are important concepts for each of us, every day. How we dress in the morning depends on whether the day is hot or cold, and most of what we do requires energy that ultimately comes from the Sun. The study of heat and temperature is part of an area of physics known as thermodynamics. The laws of thermodynamics govern the flow of energy throughout the universe. They are studied in all areas of science and engineering, from chemistry to biology to environmental science.
In this chapter, we explore heat and temperature. It is not always easy to distinguish these terms. Heat is the flow of energy from one object to another. This flow of energy is caused by a difference in temperature. The transfer of heat can change temperature, as can work, another kind of energy transfer that is central to thermodynamics. We return to these basic ideas several times throughout the next four chapters, and you will see that they affect everything from the behavior of atoms and molecules to cooking to our weather on Earth to the life cycles of stars.
Any physical property that depends consistently and reproducibly on temperature can be used as the basis of a thermometer.
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Heat is familiar to all of us. We can feel heat entering our bodies from the summer Sun or from hot coffee or tea after a winter stroll. We can also feel heat leaving our bodies as we feel the chill of night or the cooling effect of sweat after exercise.
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