The meninges

The cerebrospinal fluid occupies the subdural and subarachnoid spaces of the brain and cord and also the ventricular cavities of the brain.

The arachnoid is a thin delicate membrane, which presents a well-defined limiting surface towards the dura mater, but on its deep or pia-matral surface passes insensibly into the subarachnoid tissue.

A Pacchionian body consists of a central core of subarachnoid tissue which is joined to the general subarachnoid tissue by a comparatively narrow stalk.

The dura mater is a tough fibrous membrane of a bluish-white colour presenting externally a rough appearance, but internally smooth and shining.

The lymphatics of the brain and spinal cord are peculiar, inasmuch as they open into the subarachnoid space, and are only indirectly connected with the general lymphatic and venous systems. The communications with the venous system are effected by the Pacchio- nian bodies. The lymphatics of the peripheral nerves are in the form of tubular spaces placed between the lamellae of the perinem-al sheaths. These tubular channels open into the subdural and subarachnoid spaces.

The first step in the examination of the meninges is the removal of the brain.

The pia mater is a delicate vascular membrane which closely invests the nervous substance.

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