Any physical property that depends consistently and reproducibly on temperature can be used as the basis of a thermometer.

 Here, we want to expand these concepts to a thermodynamic system and its environment.

Heat is familiar to all of us. We can feel heat entering our bodies from the summer Sun or from hot coffee or tea after a winter stroll. We can also feel heat leaving our bodies as we feel the chill of night or the cooling effect of sweat after exercise.

A thermodynamic system includes anything whose thermodynamic properties are of interest.

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