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The spinal cord [medulla spinalis] is the lower (caudal) and most attenuated portion of the central nervous system. It is approximately cylindrical in form and terminates conically. Its average length in the adult is 45 cm. (18 in.) in the male and 42 cm. in the female. It weighs from 26 to 28 grams or about 2 per cent, of the entire cerebro-spinal axis.

After birth it grows more rapidly and for a longer period than the encephalon, increasing in weight more than sevenfold, while the brain increases less than half that amount. Its specific gravity is given as 1.038.


The Line of division between the spinal cord and the medulla oblongata is arbitrary. The outer border of the foramen magnum is commonly given, or, better, a transverse line just below the decussation of the pyramids. Lying in the vertebral canal, the adult cord usually extends to the upper border of the body of the second lumbar vertebra. However, cases may be found among taller individuals in which it extends no farther than the last thoracic vertebra. With increase in stature, its actual length increases, but the extent to which it may descend the vertebral canal decreases. Up to the third month of intra-uterine life it occupies the entire length of the vertebral canal, but owing to the fact that the vertebral column lengthens more rapidly and for a longer period than does the spinal cord, the latter, being attached to the brain above, soon ceases to occupy the entire canal. At birth its average extent is to the body of the third lumbar vertebra.

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