Hypothyroidism is a disease wherein the thyroid glands produce an inadequate quantity of thyroid hormones, specifically thyroxine and triiodothyronine. Thyroid hormones are very important as they function on nearly all cell in the body, specifically for metabolism requirements. Therefore those who have hypothyroidism tend to have a lowered process in the several systems of the body. The various symptoms of hypothyroidism are fatigue, increased sensitivity to cold, goiter, low heart rate (bradycardia), depression, muscle cramps, carpal tunnel syndrome, decreased sweating, osteoporosis, and many more.

An underactive thyroid can be caused by iodine deficiency or exposure to Iodine-131, a radioactive isotope of iodine that damages the thyroid. It may also be due to the genetic autoimmune disorder Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, where the body’s immune system attacks the thyroid gland. Yet another cause is lymphocytic thyroiditis, an inflammation of the thyroid gland that triggers an overproduction of thyroid hormones, accompanied by a period of hypothyroidism. Additionally, remedies for hyperthyroidism can also result in hypothyroidism.

There are also many types of hypothyroidism. At times the pituitary gland or the hypothalamus is not capable of inducing the thyroid gland to make sufficient thyroid hormones even though the thyroid gland itself is normal. This condition is called secondary hypothyroidism and tertiary hypothyroidism, respectively. Meanwhile, subclinical hypothyroidism refers to the condition where there are a decreased serum TSH levels, indicating hypothyroidism, but have regular levels of thyroid hormones. Thyroid hormone deficiency can also occur during birth which is called congenital hypothyroidism. When left without treatment, this can result in growth failure and mental retardation. Hypothyroidism is also a common condition among domestic dogs.


The treatment for this condition is a long-term treatment of synthetic levothyroxine (T4). It is ingested in once a day dosage, though it demands greater doses for children. People with a history of heart problems and even those who are suspected of being at high risk aren't recommended for this medication as it can certainly worsen their heart condition. The medication should be frequently checked if the correct amount of thyroid is taken. Excessive thyroid treatment can be quite harmful as it might trigger heart palpitations, increased blood pressure, and can contribute to osteoporosis.


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