Genes and proteins

The definition of gene has progressed from being an abstract unit of heredity in Mendel’s time to our current concept of a tangible molecular entity capable of replication, expression, and mutation.

The synthesis of proteins consumes more of a cell’s energy than any other metabolic process.

The prokaryotes, which include bacteria and archaea, are mostly single-celled organisms that, by definition, lack membranebound nuclei and other organelles.

After transcription, eukaryotic pre-mRNAs must undergo several processing steps before they can be translated.

The cellular process of transcription generates messenger RNA (mRNA), a mobile molecular copy of one or more genes with an alphabet of A, C, G, and uracil (U).

Prokaryotes and eukaryotes perform fundamentally the same process of transcription, with a few key differences.

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